Sophie awakens the next morning, still incredulous of what she saw in the video. When she retreats to her den, Hermes arrives with a new lesson, this one on Plato’s Academy.
Plato, Socrates’ pupil, founded a school on Socrates’ teaching, called The Academy. Philosophy, mathematics, and gymnastics were the subjects taught.
Plato taught that there were two worlds: the temporary material world and the eternal world of ideas. The world of ideas contained the ideas, or "Forms," from which all material things were patterned. Thus, though our senses may deceive us and give us an incomplete picture of material things, through reason we can comprehend the ideal world.
Plato also believed that man had an immortal soul, which belonged to the world of reason. He also taught that man’s soul existed in the ideal world prior to birth. At birth, man forgot the world of ideas and spent his entire life trying to return to that world.
Plato taught the Myth of the Cave. In this scenario, men dwelt in a cave, seeing shadows on the wall at the back of the cave. Man must break free and turn toward the light making the shadows and thus discover that reality that was making the shadows.
Plato’s ideal state consisted of three parts: rulers, auxiliaries, and laborers. The rulers would be philosopher kings. Also, in this ideal state, women would be equal, although he later modified this view due to political pressure.
Summary & Analysis
The Garden of Eden, The Top Hat, and The Myths
The Natural Philosophers, Democritus, and Fate
Socrates, Athens, and Plato
The Major's Cabin and Aristotle
Hellenism and The Postcards
Two Cultures and The Middle Ages
The Renaissance and The Baroque
Descartes, Spinoza, and Locke
Hume, Berkeley, and Bjerkely
The Enlightenment and Kant
Romanticism and Hegel
Kierkegaard and Marx
Darwin and Freud
Our Own Time and The Garden Party
Counterpoint and The Big Bang
Important Quotations Explained
Suggestions for Further Reading
How to Write Literary Analysis
Suggested Essay Topics
How to Cite This SparkNote