Essay on Conflict Management
I work for an organization called Hallmark Trading Company. This company provides services such as capital ventures, new and used equipment sales and purchases, and a full line truck center. In the course of doing business, sometimes conflict will arise. In this paper, I will first explain what conflict is, the different types of conflict and then the different styles of management used to handle conflict. My personal style of management will also be shown according to the assessment tool taken from the workbook Organizational Behavior 7th addition written by Schermerhorn JR., Hunt, and Osborn. I will explain how this style contradicts with the style of management in my organization but how the style they use may be more effective.
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Conflict is something that happens often in my organization. However, there are different styles to manage conflict and some are more effective than others. Before I explain these different styles, it is important to understand what conflict is. "Conflict occurs whenever disagreements exist in a social situation over issues of substance or whenever emotional antagonisms create frictions between individuals or groups" (Schermerhorn, Hunt, Osborn, 2002 pg.127, Conflict). There are two distinctive types of conflict, "substantive conflict" and "emotional conflict".
Substantive conflict happens when one person fundamentally disagrees with another person or group in the course of doing business. For example, my boss bought a package of step vans used in delivering bakery products. He wanted to market the trucks for electrical and mechanical applications where I thought they should be remarketed for another bakery operation. This is just a disagreement of opinions, but management still has to develop a way to manage this type of conflict, which can be very challenging depending on the personalities involved.
Emotional conflict intrudes into the feelings of a situation, such as anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, and the like. This is commonly called "clash of personalities" (Schermerhorn, Hunt, Osborn, 2002, pg.127,). This type of conflict can sometimes be more draining, and take away from the more important work that needs to be done. Usually this happens between co-workers who may not like one another, or with customers who are not dealt with properly. I have witnessed both types of conflict in my organization and the different styles used in managing these types of conflicts.
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES
According to Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn there are five ways to manage conflict. The first style I want to write about is Smoothing or Accommodation style. This is when a manager agrees with the other side of the conflicting situation. He/she smoothes the conflict over by maintaining superficial harmony. Second is Collaboration and Problem Solving. This is when a manager trouble shoots the problem and then works through the differences to make it an acceptable situation for everyone. The third is Avoidance. With this style the manager would stay neutral at all costs, trying not to participate in the situation at all. The fourth is Competition and Authoritative Command. This style of management is derived from the term I like to use as the "God" style. When a manager forces the opposite party to agree with him/her. They use their position to win due to their authority. The last style is Compromise. This style is when the manager seeks "acceptable" rather than "optimal" solutions so no one totally wins or loses.
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES IN MY ORGANIZATION
There is not one style that is used as a guideline in my organization. Each departmental manager uses the style that is conformed by his or her personality. The CEO of the organization tends to use the competition and authoritative command style. He is an ex-military man who has this style instilled into his personality. He is the boss, so we need to do it his way. This is a very counter productive way to manage conflict. He makes us use his philosophies in decisions we make rather than opening the conflict up for debate. The "my way or the highway" attitude. This style of management forces more conflict between the departments and resentment towards him. Even though I do not agree with this style of managing conflict it has been a successful style for him. He has been able to maintain a high level of integrity through the same style. Meaning, although he forces his views and decisions on his employees those decisions and views are mostly good for the company, just sometimes bad for morale.
MY STYLE OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
In the organizational behavior workbook 7th addition, there is an assessment test that helps the person taking it understand which style he or she uses. It asks a variety of questions that help pinpoint the style best suited for his/her personality. The style that was best suited for my personality was Collaboration and Problem Solving. According to the text this is the best style to handle conflict. The difference between this and the style that my CEO uses is that I genuinely have a desire to find a solution for everyone's concerns by working through differences to find the problem so everyone gains as a result. His desire is that everyone should think the way he does for every situation even though everyone's views are different.
This essay paper has explained what conflict is and the two types of conflict there are. It listed each style of management used to deal with conflict and which styles work best. It also has explained which style is used by my organization "Hallmark Trading Company" and what style I use personally according to the assessment tool in the Organizational Behavior Workbook 7th addition. I enjoyed learning more about the different styles of managing conflict while writing this paper. My desire is now to be able to recognize conflict when it happens and use a style of management that will best resolve the issues in the conflict.
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This paper intends to look at the causes of conflict in the workplace and the effects that it can have on the employers, employees, and the organization as a whole. This is not a problem that started recently, this has been going on for years. Conflict in the workplace can be resolved when addressed in a timely manner and ensuring that the correct tools are used in the process. The work environment has the normal stressors, so therefore creating an environment that is free from undue stress can be greatly rewarding. Morale and productivity can reach high levels when a pleasant work environment is created.
Keywords: conflict resolution, workplace conflict
Workplace Conflict Resolution
Conflict: ‘to come into collision or disagreement; be contradictory, at variance or in opposition; clash.’ How would it be to live this life free from conflict? We as humans would like to believe that conflicts never occur or if and when they do the resolution will be a favorable outcome for all concerned (Dictionary.com, n.d.).
Causes of Workplace Conflict
According to Crampton (2011) ‘workplace conflict is inevitable.’ It does not matter what type of business we are in there is sure to be some kind of workplace conflict. If we know what those triggers are we will be better able to deal with and try to settle the conflicts. There are everyday circumstances that can definitely lead to workplace conflict and this is not something anyone can gage or know when to expect. Just the circumstances and situations of everyday life will cause undesirable circumstances.
Individuals working together or living together for that matter will at some point will have person issues. According to Crampton (2011) whether these differences stem from ‘hurts, slights, rivalry or other conflict’ this can affect the goals and expectations of the organization. There will be some issues that we cannot leave at home and deal with when we return. When this happens it can and will cause a conflict in the workplace because some individuals will not or they are scared to discuss their personal problems with their boss or co-workers. This can cause a great misunderstanding in the workplace because everyone will be wondering what is going on.
This does not happen only in business, but this happens in any area of life. When individuals fail to communicate or do not know how to communicate this can ruin any relationship. Verbal and non-verbal communication is very important for one’s very existence and survival, so therefore we must be able to express not only our feelings, but workplace expectations.
Today most people communicate using electronics, so therefore it is very hard to really get to know how they are really feeling or thinking for that matter. In the workplace people used to walk around to get answers to situations, but now everything is e-mailed. I prefer the old-fashioned way which was management by walking around and talking to the staff face to face. This would be a way to really build a rapport.
We all have been created differently with our own minds, thoughts, and attitudes. We are now in an age where we are more aware of the different generations we interact with on a daily basis. From the silent generation to what I would call the microwave generation that really believe in texting and only using shortcuts. We are all working together and there can be some serious communication gaps which can lead to personality conflicts. Terms that are used by the more seasoned generation can be offensive to the younger generation and this can cause a conflict to occur.
This seems to be behind every ailment or confusion that may be happening in the workplace. What if the secretary decides that he or she does not want to schedule an appointment and the administrative assistant decides she does not want to cover for the secretary in her absence, this could become a stressful environment. What happens when have someone in human resources delays sending an offer letter because he or she does not want to listen to the supervisor?
Types of Conflicts
Employee versus Employee
Most of the time when this happens, the employees have miscommunicated the objective of completing a project and have his or own method of doing something. This is where different levels of experience is a negative versus a positive. The employees are not allowing their experiences to play a role in having a successful outcome. When this happens, the best thing to do is to ‘nip it in the bud’ or else the situation will be uncontrollable. There must be a meeting to discuss the genesis of the misunderstanding.
We all have to vent at some point or we will blow up or have a very negative attitude. This is something I learned and I am still learning, the person that we vent to can turn what is said into the nastiest situation and this can create a hostile work environment. It does take two to have a conversation, but the sad part is that we never know whether or not the other person has a hidden agenda and will take it to the next level.
Employee versus Manager
How this is handled could predict whether or not the person may or may not have a job in the end. This is very difficult if not the most difficult situation to be handled. Some managers may not know they are too rough or may be coming off as really misunderstood. I had to deal with this situation years ago and this person was not just being difficult and not know it, he was actually harassing me and knew what he was doing. There was no way to reach him, so the situation was resolved quietly, he was the type of person who deserved to work alone. As stated by D. Crampton, ‘a simple meeting to ‘clear the air’ may be all that’s needed to resolve the problem’ (2011).
Solutions to the Conflict
How conflicts originate or get started are different so therefore, they must be handled or settled using various approaches that suit the situation. Some of the tips used: ‘ approach must be clear, do not indulge in the conflict, personal attitude should not be the basis, others point of view must be acknowledged, use a mediator if necessary, and the superiors do not have to be involved’ (Farrell, 2014).
We all would love to have a conflict end where both sides will come out winning, but we know that that is not always the case. Hitt, Miller, & Colella (2011) wrote the following are outcomes to conflict:
- Lose-Lose: Neither party gets what they initially desired
- Win-Lose or Lose Win: One of the party’s concerns are satisfied
- Compromise: Both parties give in to some degree on an issue or set of issues
- Win-Win: Both parties get what they want. (pp. 448-450)
This last outcome is what we would like for all conflicts, but this will not always be the case or solution.
Respect in the workplace should be at the very top of everyone’s list from the top manager on down. This would be going back to basics of treating people how we want to be treated. Below is a list of what respect is (The Resolution Centre, 2009).
1. Always treat people with courtesy, politeness, kindness and ultimately how you would like to be treated
2. Listen to what others have to say before expressing your viewpoint
3. Never butt in or talk over another person
4. Encourage others to express their opinions and ideas
5. Improve your work by using others ideas and credit them for their ideas
6. Never put people down, disparage them, call them names or insult them
7. Do not belittle, criticize little things, demean or patronize others. A series of small comments over time can amount to bullying
8. If you would prefer not to do a task, chances are neither would your co-worker. Share the load
9. Regardless of race, religion, gender, age or other orientation always treat people equally
10. Ensure that your workplace maintains an equal opportunity policy and that you are familiar with it
11. Ensure that praise, recognition and appreciation is abundant in your workplace
This is so easy to understand because we are trying everyday day to manage our own emotions, which we do not realize the other person may be feeling or going through something. There are ten simple strategies help reduce negative emotions: ‘delay, expectation management, appreciation, then correction, same side, relief, leverage positions, acknowledgement, your responsibility in the problem, your responsibility in the solution and sincere apology.’ Each one of these strategies must be met with sincerity or they will not work. (Polsky, 2011).
Managing the Conflict
‘Don’t fear conflict; embrace it ‘ it’s your job’ (Myatt, 2012). What a concept. We all feel that conflict is the last thing that we would like to deal with. We spend more time at work than we do at home with our families, so therefore we would like to be in a peaceful environment. It is so true that if the problem is not addressed it will not get resolved, it will only escalate.
Mike Myatt (2012) stated in his article ‘leadership and conflict go hand-in-hand.’ This is such a true statement, but no one wants to have to deal with conflict. Leaders and managers must know how to handle conflict in the workplace. This is often swept under the rug hoping that the problem will go away and it does not, things just get worse.
Do not be afraid. It is the believed that the person causing the conflict is a trouble maker verses someone who is bringing something positive to the table. We all have various opinions and ideas, so therefore there will always be some sort of conflict which must be addresses. Some organizations will just move the individuals or as it is said the problem around to make things better.
Communicate. What we all somehow fail to do effectively. One example is the negative attitude which may happen over and over again and workers will eventually strike out at each other (Smith, n/d). When this happens the problem must be addressed and there will be times when the individual may be the cause of the problem, but do not jump to this particular conclusion prior to communicating effectively.
Can be Positive. It is hard to imagine that such a behavior as conflict can be used as a positive. How can something that seems so dark be healthy and be used in such a positive way? Humans in and out of the work center will express themselves at some point in time, and this is not something easily handled. Some people would rather avoid the conflict than address it. Kevan Hall wrote an article in 2013 that contained four tips that can be used to turn conflicts into something positive. He stated ‘that ownership of the problem or paying the price are the choices that one has.’ The tips are as follows: ‘recognize and flag the problem, remain emotionally neutral, create shared purpose, and learn from it’ (2013).
As long as we humans continue to exist, move, work and live among each other, conflict will be a part of this life. We have to learn to use the resources available to us to the best our being to try to resolve the conflicts. There will be times when the outcome will not be what we want it to be or hope for, but we must press on and try to learn from those experiences to create an environment that will be free from conflict.
The strategic implications of organizational behavior for resolving workplace conflict would be to try to create an environment that would be free of conflict or when it occurs try to ensure that it will be resolved immediately. Training is needed so that individuals will be able to handle conflict as soon as it occurs. The most valuable lesson that anyone will ever learn will be how to communicate with each other. Learning how to handle personal situations and teaching on how to respect each other versus taking each other for granted will certainly go a long way. The opportunities would be to have a great company and a team of workers that can get along with each other in a stress free environment. The challenges would be to actually get everyone to understand that they all have differences that can work as a positive but this does not always happen.
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